Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is converted into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer: There are two kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity on its own. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and a lot more are the most useful samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied for the structure, it generates an electric powered charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any type of piezo mechanism can be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to get voltage changes and for that reason are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon Rotary Torque Sensor. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power concurrently, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually referred to as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated underneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Due to their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to give you the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any sort of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system with a counter mass could be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and also the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is usually found in fast S Type Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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